The INCA (Integrated Catchments) family of models were developed by Paul Whitehead and Dan Butterfield in the mid 1990s. The first version of the model simulated inorganic nitrogen in UK rivers. Since then, versions of the model have been developed for phosphorus, carbon, sediments, pathogens, metals, mercury and organic micropollutants. The model has been used in more than 200 scientific publications addressing water resource management, pollution control and climate change impacts in Europe, the Americas and Asia.
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